- Junior Cert. History (Higher) 2007: Q6 D
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1. Blitzkrieg war was a new type of warfare introduced by Hitler, involving planes, tanks and troops on trucks. Lebensraum was the aim of Hitler to acquire "living space" in the East of Europe for German people. Scorched Earth was a policy introduced by the USSR during their war with Nazi Germany when they decided to destroy all roads, bridges, houses and crops. The Final Solution was the decision taken by Hitler and the Nazis to exterminate the Jewish people of Europe during World War Two. A U-Boat was the name given to a German submarine.
2. The Battle of Britain
The Battle of Britain began in the summer of 1940. The German Luftwaffe wanted to destroy British airfields and defeat the RAF. Huge fights took place all over southern England and a large number of casualties occurred on both sides. The RAF developed two new planes, the Spitfire and the Hurricane, which were very effective. The development of radar by the RAF was also crucial because it provided an early warning system for the British and they were able to have their planes in the air to counter-attack the Germans. After a few weeks, Hitler called off these daylight attacks and began night time attacks on British cities instead.
Operation Barbarossa was Hitler's plan to destroy communism and take over the rich farmland and oil fields of the USSR. He also wanted to use Russian workers as slaves for the new German Reich. They used "blitzkrieg" tactics using fighter planes, tanks and troops on trucks and motorbikes. However, they never managed to capture either Leningrad or Moscow because, with the onset of winter, the German soldiers began to freeze to death. The city of Leningrad came under siege but held out against the Germans for nearly three years. The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in the whole of WWII and after this the Red Army began to drive the Germans out of the USSR. This was the beginning of the defeat of Germany.
This was the name given to the plan organised by the Allies in the summer of 1944 for the liberation of France and the eventual defeat of Nazi Germany. It involved troops from the USA, Canada and Britain, who were all based in the south of England. They landed on five beaches in Normandy, all of which had code-names such as Utah and Omaha. Special landing boats were used. Troops and equipment landed rapidly on the beaches. A special oil pipeline called Pluto was laid across the English Channel to provide petrol. There were very high casualties but the Germans were forced to retreat. The Allies then began to make rapid moves into Nazi-occupied Europe and this led to the surrender of Germany in the following year.